Instead, other forms of belonging come to the forefront. There are various types of qualitative research methods. Those interested in more advanced techniques for testing and for optimizing equivalence, such as congruence coefficient analysis, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis or latent class analysis, may refer to the work of Wirth and Kolb (2012). When the independent variable interacts with a variable measured at the higher level, a comparative explanatory question is addressed. isegoria and parrhesia), as part of Greek politics, is associated with the effort of the first historians to reflect on home institutions through researching those of others.[10]. Accordingly, this approach acknowledges that countries are exposed to similar trends and developments but that those developments play out differently in different contexts. They hypothesize that due to the similarities between political and media system characteristics and their selection of cases based on a most similar system design, differences between Belgium and Sweden will be minimal. Most Different Systems – Similar Outcome designs, on the other hand, seek to identify those features that are the same among otherwise dramatically different communication systems in an effort to account for similarities in a particular outcome. The idea behind an emic procedure is to measure professionalization nationally and construct a country‐sensitive, culturally specific instrument. Moutsios, S. (2018) Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison. are regarded as cases with theoretically relevant attributes. This study is generally aggregate data analysis. Thunderbird International Business Review. Comparative research in communication and media studies is conventionally understood as the contrast among different macro‐level units, such as world regions, countries, sub‐national regions, social milieus, language areas and cultural thickenings, at one point or more points in time. Esser (2008) applies this technique and identifies, based on a comparative content analysis of television election news, three different political news cultures across five Western countries. In conclusion, well‐written manuals, clear instructions and the commitment of all participating researchers to these instructions at the outset of a comparative study are crucial to the establishment of method equivalence. Alternatively, one can pool the data and use dummy variables for the countries and interaction terms between the independent variable of interest and the dummy variables. Classifications seek to reduce the complexity of the world by grouping cases into distinct categories with identifiable and shared characteristics. We will return to this method further later. In such instances, not only do the number of observations increase, but also both cross‐sectional and cross‐time variance in the dependent variable can be considered. A major problem in comparative research is that the data sets in different countries may define categories differently (for example by using different definitions of poverty) or may not use the same categories. With these modifications, the comparative approach will continue to contribute substantially to the progression of knowledge in the communication discipline. Rather, it may also be necessary to compare both to a third emerging type, specifically, a transnationally oriented community of journalists working in different countries for transnationally oriented media, including Al Jazeera, Financial Times, The Wall Street Journal, International Herald Tribune, Time, The Economist, BBC World Service, and so on. The first option is to determine the extent to which they have actually achieved construct equivalence after the fact, primarily by means of statistical analysis. Quantitative analysis is much more frequently pursued than qualitative, and this is seen by the majority of comparative studies which use quantitative data. Qualitative Methodology; Various techniques can be used to calculate the distance between the cases and the best way to cluster them into groups. The first combines a presidential system with low party identification, and the second is low party identification combined with professionalized campaigns and strong tabloid media. Combining cross‐sectional and longitudinal designs helps to understand these transformation processes and makes clear that different contexts affect the results in different ways. Approaches and methods in comparative education research are of obvious importance, but do not always receive adequate attention. In such situations, two solutions exist, specifically, to introduce an additional longitudinal component to the design or to rely on the comparative logic of QCA, as mentioned previously, and its extension of fuzzy sets. The historical comparative research involves comparing different time-frames. Depending on the sample size, the following research strategies are available. They consider seven countries over an extended period of time—almost 20 years. Most commonly, the outcome of a multidimensional scaling analysis is two or three dimensions on which each individual case can be positioned. That said, if territories are compared, the comparison can occur at many levels above and below the nation‐state and can incorporate other relevant social, cultural, and functional factors. "[2], There are certainly methods that are far more common than others in comparative studies, however. A common application of this technique is found in political science, where it is used, for example, to compare party manifestos and investigate which parties take similar stances on certain issues (see, for example, Pennings, Keman, & Kleinnijenhuis, 2006). Fourth, the objects of analysis must be compared on the basis of a common theoretical framework and must draw on equivalent conceptualizations and methods rather than be analyzed separately. When one is not able to extend the sample to include more countries (or other types of units), one may be able to obtain data from the same cases at multiple points in time. These methods are very important in business research since they Similarly, questioning of the Greek laws and institutions and its related values and practices (e.g. These include descriptive, basic explanatory, comparison of relation, and comparative explanatory questions. This sub‐approach further acknowledges that producers, products, and audiences are no longer primarily defined by membership to national communities. For example, having drawn a media sample in country A, what are the equivalents in countries B, C, and D? This notion of path‐dependency is also reflected in the concept of glocalized hybrid cultures and hybrid media formats. Additional variables must be incorporated in comparative designs, namely, those that represent international relations. You'll learn howto use comparative methods for constructive explanation and theory building and applyit to real-world politics. In this entry, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of comparative research. (KW, 02-2020) However, the opportunities are equally tremendous, especially in a time when archival data have become increasingly accessible digitally and when comparative datasets that are of particular interest to communication scholars are collected and made publicly available. In general, however, the only thing that is certain in comparative research issues is the existence of differences to be analysed. However, if it goes as far as yielding different measurements due to using extremely different instruments, it will cause the integration of national results into one analysis to be quite challenging as it would then require additional external reference data to support the argument that the data is, in fact, comparable (i.e., equivalent at the construct level). Therefore, it may be reasonable for a cross‐cultural comparison to be grounded on functional equivalency between the constructs rather than among the single items. hypothesize and find that the strength of the effect depends on a country characteristic, namely, the overall evaluation of the EU in media coverage. The fourth step is explanation. An ideal study combines both options by first developing a conceptual framework based on multinational input and then identifying the extent to which conceptual equivalence can be assumed on the basis of the investigated empirical material. Methodologically, an emic (culture‐specific) or etic (universal) approach may be applied. Their analysis suggests that there are two paths to personalization of political communication. If this dependency is high, it might be a sign of non‐stationarity, thus indicating that the mean of the dependent variable is not stable over time. Confirmed hypotheses are extremely valuable, as they offer the opportunity for prediction. Those tests include differential item functioning techniques and confirmatory factor analysis (Vliegenthart, 2012; Wirth & Kolb, 2012). He found that he was able to class welfare states into three types, based on their level of decommodification. But even in this project, which was designed with a comparative goal from the outset, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn after careful tests of measurement invariance (see Büchi, 2016). Peter and Lauf (2002) calculated intercoder reliability for the native language approach and project language approach and found that reliability scores are generally somewhat lower for coding in a project language, probably due to variations in individual linguistic proficiencies. Here, the longitudinal aspect might become more important compared to the cross‐sectional aspect. [1] The multidisciplinary approach is good for the flexibility it offers, yet comparative programs do have a case to answer against the call that their research lacks a "seamless whole. Though this appears to support opting for the native language procedure, one cannot turn a blind eye to the fact that the native language option enhances the risk that differences found in the results are confounded with differences among coder groups in varying languages (Rössler, 2012). As comparative research offers the opportunity to address a particular set of questions that are of crucial importance for our understanding of a wide range of communicative processes, it deserves a central position in communication science. Thus different causal paths—each path being relevant, in a distinct way—may lead to the same outcome. After that, a careful analysis of these results is carried out to foresee the future of the product and changes are made accordingly. This explanatory logic can be distinguished from a mere descriptive comparison that is considered less mature, and it also extends clearly beyond the general advantages of comparison as outlined before and constitutes the status of comparative analysis as a separate and original approach. As Landman (2008) states, “once things have been described and classified, the comparativist can move on to search for those factors that may help explain what has been described and classified” (p. 6). The comparative communication scholar, however, still faces a substantial number of challenges. The research is based on the assumption that different parameters of political and media systems differentially promote or constrain communication roles and behaviors of organizations and actors within those systems. He noticed there was a difference in types of social welfare systems, and compared them based on their level of decommodification of social welfare goods. Emic Approach to Qualitative Research; When it comes to subject matter of comparative inquiries, many contend there is none unique to it. On the most basic level, comparison involves the description of differences and similarities. Comparative communication research is a combination of substance (specific objects of investigation studied in different macro‐level contexts) and method (identification of differences and similarities following established rules and using equivalent concepts). However, as these authors also note, though the techniques just mentioned work well for multi‐country surveys, they are less efficient for comparative content analysis. A workable alternative is the project language approach where all researchers and coders agree upon one common lingua franca—usually English—for instruments, training, and reliability testing. To conduct multivariate statistical techniques, a considerable number of cases are required, and in many instances, data for a sufficient number of cases are unavailable. Globalization has been a major factor, increasing the desire and possibility for educational exchanges and intellectual curiosity about other cultures. In those instances, techniques such as multidimensional scaling, correspondence analysis, or cluster analysis may be warranted. To ensure equal meaning of survey questions and coding instructions, a specific prior action is the translation/back‐translation procedure wherein a translated version of the questionnaire or codebook is first produced and is then back‐translated into the original language. Comparative research aims to understand how characteristic factors of the contextual environment shape communication processes differently in different settings. As an alternative, Wirth and Kolb (2012) suggest that scholars offer qualitative discussions of functional equivalence based on explorations of the concept's dimensions, theoretical considerations, additional information, and expert advice. His research focuses on cross‐national studies of news journalism and political communication. On the one hand, this can be interpreted as a sign of communication science maturing as a research discipline. As an inexpensive shortcut, scholars increasingly, albeit thoughtlessly, refer to existing typologies of media systems, such as the three models of media/politics relationships in Western Europe and North America by Hallin and Mancini (2004), without any deeper engagement and without proving, in detail, that the variables of their own study are directly linked to Hallin and Mancini's dimensions. Moreover, using complaints about the alleged immaturity of the field as an excuse for delivering yet more immature studies will only serve to negatively affect the advancement of research in the field. For instance, scholars may want to study a vast number of countries to explore whether the “level of negativity in the media about politics” allows them to predict the “level of mistrust and cynicism in the general public.” The focus of a large‐N analysis is on parsimonious explanatory designs where the impact of a few key variables is tested on as many cases as possible, thereby identifying universal laws that can be widely generalized. Even an isolated single‐country study can possess broader significance if it is conducted as an “implicit” comparison. Researchers get easily lost when embarking on comparative legal research. With the medical students gathered around, the physicians conducting the autopsy observed that the patient's lungs were speckled with large dark masses of cells that had caused extensi… Providing contextual descriptions of a set of foreign systems or cultures enhances our understanding and our ability to interpret diverse communication arrangements. In the contextual environments, specific factors that are assumed to characteristically affect the objects of analysis—be they people, practices, communication products or other structural or cultural elements—must be identified. Implicit comparisons use existing typologies as a yardstick to interpret and contextualize the single case at hand. The main reason being that there is no agreement on the kind of methodology to be followed, nor even on the methodologies that could be followed. In a third step, which builds on the previous two, classifications and typologies must be established. Instrument bias refers primarily to equal survey modes (mail, telephone, personal, online) and culture‐specific habits related to those modes on the part of interviewers and interviewees. Information technology has enabled greater production of quantitative data for comparison, and international communications technology has facilitated this information to be easily spread. Macro‐level cases, however defined, are assumed to provide characteristic contextual conditions for a certain object that is investigated across cases. Once construct equivalence is proven convincingly, an etic approach is acceptable. Analyzing Pathways of Nurturing Informal Seed Production into Formal Private Ventures for Sustainable Seed Delivery and Crop Productivity: Experiences from Ethiopia. Tri Hita Karana-based green environment building management model. While surveys strive for probability samples, cross‐national content analyses typically rely on systematic rather than representative samples and examine either the most widely distributed media in a market (as measured by circulation or ratings), or the most influential outlets in the inter‐media agenda setting process (as measured by news tenor leadership and media citations), or the media most relevant to the issue being studied (as measured by amount of coverage or expert assessment). This would offer opportunities to respond to comparative explanatory questions and to more fully understand the role of context on the effects of communicative processes. Accordingly, we offer four necessary extensions. “With this logic,” as Comstock (2012) explains, “the encompassing method selects cases on the basis of their representativeness of common positions in the overall system” (p. 376). abilitytovalidlycollectdatathatareindeedcomparablebetweendifferentcontextsand. Accordingly, given that considerable progress has been made in this field, we must continue to build on it. As Rihoux (2006, p. 682) points out, QCA assumes that (a) causality is often a combination of “conditions” (explanatory variables) that in interaction eventually produces a phenomenon—the “outcome” (phenomenon to be explained); (b) several different combinations of conditions may produce the same outcome; and (c) depending on the context a given condition may very well have a different impact on the outcome. This may indeed be true, but a brief perusal of comparative endeavours reveals there are some topics more recurrent than others. Esser and Hanitzsch (2012b), in their Handbook of Comparative Communication Research, introduce several suitable frameworks, such as the political communication system, media system, media market, media audience, media culture, journalism culture, election communication system, and news‐making system, among others. Thus, the manners in which the various media systems respond are likely to demonstrate valuable information about the specific conditions of the media system in question. Additionally, the entry discusses statistical techniques that can be used to analyze quantitative comparative data, and we end with a discussion on how globalization impacts comparative (mainly cross‐national) research, as well as how such trends might call for the integration of research with multiple research units at multiple levels. The challenge to establishing a causal link lies in the question of how to deal with all the other known and unknown variables that also differentiate these media systems (for example, market size) and may have plausible effects on the outcome variable (that is market pluralism). And the high esteem for intellectual activity gave rise to a genuine curiosity about other cultures – which has lain thereafter at the heart of comparative inquiry. The smaller the sample, the more important it is that a convincing theoretical justification be provided that explicitly states the basis of each case. A Qualitative Review of Cruise Service Quality: Case Studies from Asia. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. It is important to understand that QCA uses a more complex understanding of causality than the most different and most similar logic. of different types of research questions that can be addressed with comparative. … Mono‐national case studies can contribute to comparative research if they are composed with a larger framework in mind and follow the Method of Structured, Focused Comparison (George & Bennett, 2005). Input includes the scores of a country 's population must be established here, the only thing is... 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