There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients. [29], Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes. In Tamil Nadu this tuber acquired a name based on its appearance 'urulai-k-kizhangu' (உருளைக் கிழங்கு) meaning cylindrical tuber. Curing allows the skin to fully set and any wounds to heal. Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). In Western Europe, especially in Belgium, sliced potatoes are fried to create frieten, the original French fried potatoes. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[30][73] and the United States. [40] In 2010, potatoes were bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits. You can also find multiple synonyms or similar words of Solanum Tuberosum. Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years. One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have a great popularity. [30] Thousands of varieties still persist in the Andes however, where over 100 cultivars might be found in a single valley, and a dozen or more might be maintained by a single agricultural household. Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, "Potato – Definition of potato by Merriam-Webster", "Geographic distribution of wild potato species", "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping", "Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato", "Regulation of potato tuberization by daylength and gibberellins", "Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potatoes", "A genetically modified potato, not for eating, is stirring some opposition in Europe", "Molecular description and similarity relationships among native germplasm potatoes (, "ISO accreditation a world-first for CIP genebank", "Sequencing the Potato Genome: Outline and First Results to Come from the Elucidation of the Sequence of the World's Third Most Important Food Crop", "Using DNA, Scientists Hunt For The Roots Of The Modern Potato", "Welcome to the Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project", "Potato and tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans: An overview of pathology and resistance breeding", "Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight", "Saving the Potato in its Andean Birthplace", "Potatoes for Chipping Grades and Standards | Agricultural Marketing Service", "Retrospective View of North American Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding in the 20th and 21st Centuries", "Genetically Engineered Organisms Public Issues Education Project/Am I eating GE potatoes? [66], Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[94] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. 388 Integrated Control of Potato Late Blight in the Nordic and Baltic Countries. Solanum tuberosum 'Grimpantii' - Klimmende Aardappel Solanum tuberosum ‘Grimpantii’ – Klimmende Aardappel morningglory 1 maart 2018 Alles , Eenjarige planten , Plantencatalogus , S After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. : De gebruiker mag: Delen – het werk kopiëren, verspreiden en doorgeven; Remixen – afgeleide werken maken; Onder de volgende voorwaarden: Naamsvermelding – U moet op een gepaste manier aan naamsvermelding doen, een link naar de … [3] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas independently in multiple locations,[4] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. [8], Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. Gauldie, Enid (1981). [36], The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). [79] The skin of creamer potatoes is waxy and high in moisture content, and the flesh contains a lower level of starch than other potatoes. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange. In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes four centuries ago, and it is estimated that by the year 2020 over two billion people will depend on it for food, feed, or income. [114], During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. [82] The commercial storage and retrieval of potatoes involves several phases: first drying surface moisture; wound healing at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables. [35] Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped. The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre). [41], Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. Next Up: French Fry Fans, J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced Black Spot Bruise. [24], The International Potato Center, based in Lima, Peru, holds an ISO-accredited collection of potato germplasm. In western Norway, komle is popular. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended. Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. [82], On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. GM Crop Events developed by J.R. Simplot Co. and N. Olsen. In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. It is generally either a Yukon Gold potato or a red potato, called gold creamers[78] or red creamers respectively, and measures approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potato&oldid=1000727582, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. 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