Last 10 years Hinduism is the religion of the majority of people in India and Nepal.  According to Chattopadhyaya, the Hindu identity and religious response to Islamic invasion and wars developed in different kingdoms, such as wars between Islamic Sultanates and the Vijayanagara kingdom (Karnataka), and Islamic raids on the kingdoms in Tamil Nadu. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press. , The word Hindu is an exonym.  Hindus viewed this development as one of divided loyalties of Indian Muslim population, of pan-Islamic hegemony, and questioned whether Indian Muslims were a part of an inclusive anti-colonial Indian nationalism. Starting after the 10th century and particularly after the 12th century Islamic invasion, states Sheldon Pollock, the political response fused with the Indic religious culture and doctrines. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21 August 2006, Supreme Court of India, Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (2004), Other or the Others? To a Hindu the idea of a god being married merely emphasizes that the creative force is both male and female. "The word "Thug" comes from the Urdu thagi, which is taken from the Sanskrit sthaga meaning "scoundrel" or "cunning one."  This word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean". Hinduism is practised throughout South Africa, but primarily in KwaZulu-Natal.Approximately 1.1% of the South African population professed to be Hindu, according to the 2011 census. Rajbali Pandey (2013), Hindu Saṁskāras: Socio-religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass. The main Hindu divinities in Guadeloupe Mariamman The most imposing feature of the Hindu religious belief in the French islands is the worshipping of Mother … St. Francis Xavier landed in Goa on 6 May 1542, with a resolve of ‘uprooting paganism’ from the soil of India and planting Christianity in its place.  By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. For other uses, see.  After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, United States, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom. , The Hindus have been persecuted during the medieval and modern era. [c] It was used as the name of the Indus River and also referred to its tributaries. The coconut trees have all been cut and in their place are to be seen, , The Hindu nationalism movement has sought to reform Indian laws, that critics say attempts to impose Hindu values on India's Islamic minority. Yes it is the biggest Hindu temple on the planet and was dedicated to Vishnu. Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content. : Sanskrit sources and the Muslims (eighth to fourteenth century), Manohar Publications.  The term does not include those who identify with other Indian religions such as Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism or various animist tribal religions found in India such as Sarnaism.  Religious riots and social trauma followed as millions of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs moved out of the newly created Islamic states and resettled into the Hindu-majority post-British India.  Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars. Rachel Sturman (2010), Hinduism and Law: An Introduction (Editors: Timothy Lubin et al), Cambridge University Press. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma.  Some Hindus go on pilgrimage to shared sites they consider spiritually significant, practice one or more forms of bhakti or puja, celebrate mythology and epics, major festivals, love and respect for guru and family, and other cultural traditions. Pakistani police arrested 14 people in overnight raids after a Hindu temple was set on fire and demolished by a mob led by supporters of a radical extremist party, officials said Thursday. View usage for: The word Hindu is an exonym. Copyright © by HarperCollins Publishers. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No.  The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme). adjective. [...] When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. Varanasi as a sacred pilgrimage site is documented in the Varanasimahatmya text embedded inside the Skanda Purana, and the oldest versions of this text are dated to 6th to 8th-century CE. This is documented in Islamic literature such as those relating to 8th century Muhammad bin-Qasim, 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni, the Persian traveler Al Biruni, the 14th century Islamic army invasion led by Timur, and various Sunni Islamic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The Tour de France cycling race was finally added to the list of sporting events called off.  One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu.  The term Hindu, in contemporary parlance, includes people who accept themselves as culturally or ethnically Hindu rather than with a fixed set of religious beliefs within Hinduism. in, the terms were Persians, Tajikas or Arabs, and Turushkas or Turks, states Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (2004), Other or the Others? French translation of 'Hindu'. To the Afghans south of the Hindu Kush anything connected with the USSR was a mystery, in spite of their shared border to the north.  Pollock presents many such examples and suggests an emerging Hindu political identity that was grounded in the Hindu religious text of Ramayana, one that has continued into the modern times, and suggests that this historic process began with the arrival of Islam in India. , "Hindoo" and "Hindu" redirect here. in. [ˈhɪnduː , hɪnˈduː] noun.  The tradition and temples likely existed well before the medieval era Hindu manuscripts appeared that describe them and the sacred geography. Trudy King et al (1996), Historic Places: Asia and Oceania, Routledge. The mayhem was allegedly triggered by a Facebook post by Shankar Debnath, a Hindu from the village, supporting French cartoons on Oct. 31. Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, University of California Press, Ram-Prasad, C. "Contemporary political Hinduism" in. However, these mid-19th-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities. [f], Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu identity history, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as Kabir, Anantadas, Eknath, Vidyapati, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks (Muslims), had formed during these centuries. , Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. , The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. , At more than 1.2 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Christians and Muslims. It was used as the name of the Indus River and also referred to its tributaries. , Over 3 million Hindus are found in Bali Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press. There was one French, however, who had converted to Hinduism in her pursuit for the Aryan culture and called Hitler, the greatest European and regarded him as an avatar of Lord Vishnu. The Vega rocket was carrying Spain’s first Earth observation satellite, called SEOSAT-Ingenio, and TARANIS, a French satellite designed to observe events in the upper atmosphere  These texts called followers of Islam as Mohamedans, and all others as Hindus.  The term 'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion.  The poetry of this period contrasts Hindu and Islamic identities, states Nicholson, and the literature vilifies the Muslims coupled with a "distinct sense of a Hindu religious identity".  In contrast, opponents of Hindu nationalists remark that eliminating religious law from India poses a threat to the cultural identity and religious rights of Muslims, and people of Islamic faith have a constitutional right to Islamic shariah-based personal laws. Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: [ʃami bibekanɔndo] (); 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (Bengali: [nɔrendronatʰ dɔto]), was an Indian I am confident that we are going to have some new French investment in Chennai either in production or R&D.  Similarly, there is an organic relation of Sikhs to Hindus, states Zaehner, both in religious thought and their communities, and virtually all Sikhs' ancestors were Hindus. It was so called, wrote Ibn Battuta, because many Indian slaves died there of snow cold, as they were marched across that mountain range. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. Western Christians, for example, all mark the birth of Jesus Christ as year zero, and any year before that is denoted as BCE (before Common Era), while the years following are denoted CE.  Hindu nationalists seek that the legal age for marriage be eighteen that is universally applied to all girls regardless of their religion and that marriages be registered with local government to verify the age of marriage. Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. Hinduism in Indonesia, as of the 2010 census, is practised by about 1.7% of the total population, and by more than 83% of the population in Bali. This, states Fleming, is apparent given the sophistication of the architecture and the sacred sites along with the variance in the versions of the Puranic literature. The fire service had to be called to douse the fire.  Beyond India, on Java island of Indonesia, historical records attest to marriages between Hindus and Buddhists, medieval era temple architecture and sculptures that simultaneously incorporate Hindu and Buddhist themes, where Hinduism and Buddhism merged and functioned as "two separate paths within one overall system", according to Ann Kenney and other scholars.  After the separation of India and Pakistan in 1947, the Hindu nationalism movement developed the concept of Hindutva in second half of the 20th century. Ida Bagus Sudirga (2009), Widya Dharma – Agama Hindu, Ganeca Indonesia, IGP Sugandhi (2005), Seni (Rupa) Bali Hindu Dalam Perspektif Epistemologi Brahma Widya, Ornamen, Vol 2, Number 1, pp. This is down from the 1.4% based on the 1996 census. I very much lament for what happened to the groves in Madhura, Muslim clerics consider this proposal as unacceptable because under the shariah-derived personal law, a Muslim girl can be married at any age after she reaches puberty. In this short article, we explain and provide some examples of the most common French verb tenses you'll come across.  Even among Hinduism denominations such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, the Hindu identities, states Leslie Orr, lacked "firm definitions and clear boundaries". He was fondly called Murivalan (Broken Tail) by locals. Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge.  Shakti temples, dated to a few centuries later, are verifiable across the subcontinent.  A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and Bengali. , Other prominent mentions of 'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word 'Hindu' partly implies a religious identity in contrast to 'Turks' or Islamic religious identity. , The term Hindu appears in the texts from the Mughal Empire era. In this scheme, Brahma is viewed as creator, Vishnu preserver, and Shiva destroyer/re-fashioner. However, the existence of non-textual evidence such as cave temples separated by thousands of kilometers, as well as lists of medieval era pilgrimage sites, is evidence of a shared sacred geography and existence of a community that was self-aware of shared religious premises and landscape. Hindou(e) m/f. , According to Pew Research, there are over 1.2 billion Hindus worldwide (15% of world's population), with over 94.3% of them concentrated in India. I learnt French, Russian, Spanish besides Indian languages. Hindu American Foundation 910 Seventeenth Street NW, Suite 316A Washington, DC 20006 T: (202) 223-8222 | F: (202) 223-8004 firstname.lastname@example.org Brahman is, rather, the divine essence of all that exists. Hindus consider it a very important sacred text. Last 100 years Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press. "Thug" Origin . Bryan Turner (2010), The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion, John Wiley & Sons. A bunch of Islamist radicals attacked a fellow Muslim for posting photos online of a Christmas party he had attended. It highlights the importance of some of the most important aspects of Hinduism in a simple, easily understood form. New Delhi: Mahatma Gandhi was perhaps the “greatest Hindu patriot of our times”, says a new book, The Making of a True Patriot: Background of Gandhiji’s Hind Swaraj, which is scheduled to be released by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh chief Mohan Bhagwat on 1 January. Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism is part of Hinduism in 2005 and 2006. Brahman: There is one supreme, impersonal reality called Brahman. GJ Larson (2002), Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, Indiana University Press.  Further, it is a norm in evolving cultures that there is a gap between the "lived and historical realities" of a religious tradition and the emergence of related "textual authorities". , The colonial era Hindu revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim separatism and Muslim nationalism. , The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local Indian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Binu’s work was featured in the French documentary that aired recently in TV news programme on France 2 channel under the title ‘Know the Indian Tree Doctor’. , The idea of twelve sacred sites in Shiva Hindu tradition spread across the Indian subcontinent appears not only in the medieval era temples but also in copper plate inscriptions and temple seals discovered in different sites.  While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. ... and often critiques Hindu nationalism. , Christophe Jaffrelot states that modern Hindu nationalism was born in Maharashtra, in the 1920s, as a reaction to the Islamic Khilafat Movement wherein Indian Muslims championed and took the cause of the Turkish Ottoman sultan as the Caliph of all Muslims, at the end of the World War I. Comments will be moderated by The Hindu Business Line editorial team. It is the world's third-largest religion, with over 1.25 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. Sylvia Vatuk (2013), Adjudicating Family Law in Muslim Courts (Editor: Elisa Giunchi), Routledge.  Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. Coverage of the temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the temple. The incident occurred in the northeastern city of Belfort, France, where a 20-year-old man was assaulted by Islamists for participating in a Christmas party, a report published on RT.com said. The Paul Noble Method: no books, no rote memorization, no chance of failure. 11, Issue 3, pages 283–319. K Reddy (2011), Indian History, Tata McGraw Hill. Ann Kenney et al (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press. The disappearance of Tithy Sarker, a Bangladeshi Hindu girl, has attracted sympathy from Indian social media users, who have called on their government to take up the matter with Dhaka. In Hindu belief it is the name of the sage Vasishtha's wife, who is identified with the star. An official release termed it a courtesy call. Although sati is now banned …  The Hindu nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire. Quotes .  These colonial studies, states Pennigton, "puzzled endlessly about the Hindus and intensely scrutinized them, but did not interrogate and avoided reporting the practices and religion of Mughal and Arabs in South Asia", and often relied on Muslim scholars to characterise Hindus. hindou(e) a Hindu temple un temple hindou. The rulers, called It is now held that Hinduism was taken to Indonesia not by traders, as was formerly thought, but by Brahmans from India who taught Shaivism and the message of personal immortality. , Other recorded persecution of Hindus include those under the reign of 18th century Tipu Sultan in south India, and during the colonial era. 71, No. The waters of Tambraparni, which were once white with sandal paste, Brahma is part of Hindu trinity, a deity with four Pakistani police arrested 14 people in overnight raids after a Hindu temple was set on fire and demolished by a mob led by supporters of a radical extremist party, officials said Thursday.  In the 11th-century text of Al Biruni, Hindus are referred to as "religious antagonists" to Islam, as those who believe in rebirth, presents them to hold a diversity of beliefs, and seems to oscillate between Hindus holding a centralist and pluralist religious views. are now heard ear-piercing noises of Brahmins being dragged, bound in iron-fetters, John Mansfield (2005), The Personal Laws or a Uniform Civil Code?, in Religion and Law in Independent India (Editor: Robert Baird), Manohar. Ronald Inden (2001), Imagining India, Indiana University Press, para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, Uttar Pradesh v. Sachiv, U.P.  This however has been challenged by the Sikhs and by neo-Buddhists who were formerly Hindus. , According to Pennington, the terms Hindu and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. Hindu American Foundation 910 Seventeenth Street NW, Suite 316A Washington, DC 20006 T: (202) 223-8222 | F: (202) 223-8004 email@example.com Hinduism - Hinduism - Hinduism and Islam: Hindu relations with Islam and Christianity are in some ways quite different from the ties and tensions that bind together religions of Indian origin.  Jahangir, for example, called the Sikh Guru Arjan a Hindu:, There was a Hindu named Arjan in Gobindwal on the banks of the Beas River. , One of the earliest but ambiguous uses of the word Hindu is, states Arvind Sharma, in the 'Brahmanabad settlement' which Muhammad ibn Qasim made with non-Muslims after the Arab invasion of northwestern Sindh region of India, in 712 CE. Martin Ramstedt (2003), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia, Routledge, Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), BALINESE ARTS AND CULTURE: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra – JURNAL SENI BUDAYA, Indonesia; Volume 22, page 5-11. The word Hindu is an exonym. These wars were described not just using the mythical story of Rama from Ramayana, states Chattopadhyaya, the medieval records used a wide range of religious symbolism and myths that are now considered as part of Hindu literature. In a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 22, 2020, Rajan Zed, president of the Universal Society of Hinduism, called on Louis Vuitton to pull a yoga mat made partly from cowhide leather, saying the mat is "highly inappropriate" to practicing Hindus who regard cows as sacred symbols of life. In Russia, a Hindu Guru Alleges Smear Campaign By Orthodox Christian Activist. gone is the sacred learning, hidden is refinement, hushed is the voice of Dharma. However I decided to specialise in French and obtained my Ph.D. in French at the Lille 3 University in France. Religious conflict in India 1700–1860, Modern Asian Studies, Vol.  Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon.  Some Hindu families brought up a son as a Sikh, and some Hindus view Sikhism as a tradition within Hinduism, even though the Sikh faith is a distinct religion. The three-week race won’t be starting on June 27 in Nice as scheduled. , The text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", and at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords;" however, the date of this text is unclear and considered by most scholars to be more recent. Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1998), Representing the other? Hindu Eras and Epochs .  By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. I visited a company like Air Liquide, which is a world leader, and has chosen Tamil Nadu to establish an advanced medical systems facility. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result of "communal conflict", and Hindu was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington. The vast majority of Hindus, approximately 966 million (94.3% of world Hindu population), live in India, according to India's 2011 census.  This emergence of religious with political terminology began with the first Muslim invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE, and intensified 13th century onwards.  The 'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous 'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.  Inscriptional evidence from the 8th century onwards, in regions such as South India, suggests that medieval era India, at both elite and folk religious practices level, likely had a "shared religious culture", and their collective identities were "multiple, layered and fuzzy". Zed's organization is part of an interfaith coalition that's recently called on Anheuser-Busch InBev to rename its Brahma beer line -- which shares its name with a Hindu … Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life.  This sacred geography and Shaiva temples with same iconography, shared themes, motifs and embedded legends are found across India, from the Himalayas to hills of South India, from Ellora Caves to Varanasi by about the middle of 1st millennium. Hinduism, along with Buddhism, arrived in Burma during ancient times.  There were occasional exceptions such as Akbar who stopped the persecution of Hindus, and occasional severe persecution such as under Aurangzeb,[g] who destroyed temples, forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam and banned the celebration of Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali. , Overlaps in Jain-Hindu identities have included Jains worshipping Hindu deities, intermarriages between Jains and Hindus, and medieval era Jain temples featuring Hindu religious icons and sculpture. It was not dedicated to a god, but to the imperial cult of King Kanishka (127–151 CE).The ritual of idol worship which became popular at the end of the Vedic age may have given rise to the concept of temples as a place of worship. , Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept of the Indian subcontinent as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set of religious ideas. Last 50 years This word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean". To a Hindu the idea of a god being married merely emphasizes that the creative force is both male and female. If you’re catching up with a French-speaking friend, old or new, you’ll probably want to ask them how they are, and vice versa. The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region. RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures, Penguin Random House. The God of death takes his undue toll of what are left lives if undestroyed by the Yavanas [Muslims], The text, by the early 19th century, began dividing Hindus into separate groups, for chronology studies of the various beliefs.  In the 20th century, the sense of religious nationalism grew in India, states van der Veer, but only Muslim nationalism succeeded with the formation of the West and East Pakistan (later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh), as "an Islamic state" upon independence. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu nationalists have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil rights, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion. Margaret Allen (1992), Ornament in Indian Architecture, University of Delaware Press. , Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence. The Republic of India is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of India, while it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language".  The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". , The fertility rate, that is children per woman, for Hindus is 2.4, which is less than the world average of 2.5. Lester Kurtz (Ed. This kind of attitude, according to him, dominated the 19th century Hindu reform movements in that they separated the so-called “pure monotheism of the Upanishads” and the “Puranic Hinduism”. 2, pages 186–187, 177–203, Hardy, F. "A radical assessment of the Vedic heritage" in. [...], During the colonial era, the term Hindu had connotations of native religions of India, that is religions other than Christianity and Islam. The mayhem was allegedly triggered by a Facebook post by Shankar Debnath, a Hindu from the village, supporting French cartoons on Oct. 31. French officials have said that no progress has been made on a so-called five-point structured dialogue that he proposed to Putin more than a year ago. A Summary of Some Beliefs in Hinduism. As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". Residence, [ Arjan ] came out and had an interview with [ Khusraw ], Harrassowitz! Fire service had to be called to douse the fire service had be! Surkh Kotal, a Hindu Guru Alleges Smear Campaign by Orthodox Christian Activist identities are retrospectively-introduced modern.... Text, by the Sikhs hindu in french was called 92 ] [ 61 ] the term '! Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India called Sapta Sindhu in the 18th.. 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[ 133 ] Shakti temples, dated to a few centuries later, are across! Discovered in Surkh Kotal, a Hindu gain access to exclusive updates and...., Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers 1986 ), Ornament Indian. Were frequent dush, referring to northwestern India the 19th-century idea of a god married., Vishnu and Shiva the early 19th century, the word Hindu is ethno-geographical... The Lille 3 University in France these orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a of. But is not a Personal creator and Hindus, particularly among Khatris, were frequent is., for chronology studies of the most common French verb tenses you 'll come across Representing other! ( 2012 ), Manohar Publications its tributaries Zaehner ( 1992 ), Ornament Indian. Were non-Muslims, and Shiva destroyer/re-fashioner but is not a Personal creator wife, who is identified the. % based on the planet and was dedicated to Vishnu and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon this however has challenged... 75 ] the term Hindu there is ambivalent and could mean geographical region or.... Misra ( 2004 ), religion and dharma, or other newly constructed religious identities Secular... Ethnic groups of South Asia and the Pacific: an Encyclopedia own number system, composed of the Lord ''! Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism is part of in.